Depression Phase When there Is a continuous decrease of output, Income, employment, prices and profits, there is a fall in the standard of living and depression sets in. The features of 1. Fall in volume of output and trade. Fall in income and rise in unemployment. Decline in consumption and demand. Fall in interest rate. Contraction of bank credit. Fall in MEC Marginal efficiency of capital and investment. The aggregate conomic activity is at the lowest, causing a decline in prices and profits until the economy reaches its Trough low point.
Recovery Phase The turning point from depression to expansion is termed as Recovery or Revival Phase. During the period of revival or recovery, there are expansions and rise in economic activities. When demand starts rising, production increases and this causes an increase in investment. There is a steady rise in output, income, employment, prices and profits. The businessmen gain confidence and become optimistic Positive. The stimulation of investment brings about the evival or recovery of the economy.
The banks expand credit, business expansion takes place and stock markets are activated. There is an increase in employment, production, income and aggregate demand, prices and profits start rising, and business expands. Revival slowly emerges into prosperity, and the business cycle is repeated. Thus we see that, during the expansionary or prosperity phase, there is inflation and during the contraction or depression phase, there is a deflation. Knife Edge Instability Roy Harrod is credited with getting twentieth-century economists thinking about economic growth.
The warranted growth rate is the growth rate at which all saving is absorbed into investment. The entire Canon corporate philosophy is expressed in eight fundamental tenants of corporate social responsibility: To continuously improve environmental assurance and performance throughout corporate operations at every level; To comply fully with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and additional mandates of its corporate stakeholders; To aggressively pursue pollution-prevention and minimization strategies and apply those equally to energy and other…… [Read More].
Business Plan for Ginseng Root. Despite these fluctuations in pricing levels, current projects indicate that demand for ginseng will continue to increase in the future due to greater demands from a burgeoning middle class Chinese market How to grow ginseng, Although wild-grown ginseng commands higher prices, cultivated alternatives typically weigh more but the Chinese highly prefer the wild-grown version How to grow ginseng, As shown in Figure 1 below, West Virginia is located within the zones that are regarded as being especially appropriate for cultivating wild-grown ginseng.
Business Reports From 2 Case. At the same time, it helps to determine if these prices are increasing. Management This is useful for management, because it helps them to determine if this decrease in prices will have an impact upon the overall bottom line. Once they have determined this, they can be able to take steps to protect the company's profit margin Conclusion This is important, because it highlights an effective tool that managers can use to address the underlying challenge they could face.
One of the assumptions underlying CVP analysis is that total costs remain constant over the relevant range of activity. What does this mean and how does fixed costs per unit per lamp unit change with increased production over the relevant range of activity? Provide your answer in about words in the international memorandum mentioned below.
Business International - Wal-Mart vs. Perhaps they're put off by the cracked floor tiles or the cobwebs on the headless, foam-rubber mannequins. Whatever the reason, the store's rock-bottom prices and helpful service clearly aren't pulling in many shoppers" Fairlamb and Cohn, After nearly a decade of trying to penetrate the German market, Wal-Mart counted its losses and exited Germany.
A Wal-Mart spokesman argued that, despite the million dollar losses, the experience was a positive one as it represented a turning point and a lesson for the future. The lesson was that in spite of its national success, Wal-Mart is vulnerable in the international context Lander and Barbaro, Similar situations are also encountered in Asia, and the question that is being posed here refers to the future strategies Wal-Mart could implement in order to reduce its vulnerability and increase its position in the global context.
Business in Order to Assess. In order to achieve this target, the personnel operating in a foreign subsidiary should take part in trainings regarding the locals' customs, traditions, way of thinking, language etc. Additionally, studies should be carried out for concluding if the company's products or services are adequate to a certain foreign market. For instance, a company wishing to sell beef on the Indian market where the cow is considered to be a sacred animal or an organization which designs white packages for its products sold in Japan where this color represents mourning will surely lead to collapse.
Let's take, for example, the McDonald's case which has developed a successful transnational strategy. The king of fast-food chains has tailored its menus according to the gastronomic habits of the foreign markets it has entered. Just imagine the disastrous outcome of a hamburger with pork sold in an Arab country. In conclusion, molding over the foreign…… [Read More]. Business to Business Major Trends. Specialists in the field have also identified other trends that they consider will affect the B2B market Focus, Such trends refer to the fact that marketing is likely to be considered responsible for revenue objectives, B2B markets are likely to become more similar with consumer markets, the B2B sector will be characterized by a social media crisis, more attention granted to return on investments, the increased of automation, increased importance of Internet supported buying cycles, information overload, focus on lead quality, focus on branding and awareness, and others.
The following chart reveals B2B companies' interest in investments regarding several channels. Most of these companies intend to significantly increase investments in website design, social media, virtual events, search engines, email marketing, and paid search.
The attention these companies pay to Public elations and telemarketing seems to remain constant. B2B companies estimate they will reduce investments in direct mail, trade shows,…… [Read More]. Moreover, FID technology has proven useful in other respects, such as ensuring the proper temperature of frozen and refrigerated goods in transit and even by facilitating the coordination of emergency supplies during disaster responses on the part of the federal government Gordon, In fact, the ability of FID to monitor other variables besides geographical location suggests additional valuable applications such as the incorporation into manufacturing processes.
For example, as in the case of transporting refrigerated goods , temperature can be monitored and adjusted automatically, improving the quality and safety of everything from crucial medical supplies to pop tarts.
Furthermore, potential cost savings provided by FID technology transcend the realm of production and supply chain management. Shippers can monitor compliance on the part of their truckers with speed limits and route restrictions, thereby saving additionally on the cost of insuring their employees and equipment, by virtue of the increased ability that…… [Read More].
While their backgrounds and personal beliefs are very different, they never take each other for granted. They are encouraged to express their thoughts and ideas and to treat each other with dignity. Service to their Customers -- customers are the reason that they are in business, so they believe that they should treat them that way. They offer quality merchandise at the lowest prices, and do it with the best customer service possible. They look for every opportunity where they can exceed their customers' expectations.
They believed that this is when they are at their very best. Striving for Excellence -- They are proud of their accomplishments but are never satisfied. They constantly reach further to bring new ideas and goals to life. They model themselves after Sam Walton, who was never satisfied until prices were as low as they could be.
They believe that a product's quality is as…… [Read More]. Business and Political Argument Against. The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high.
Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States.
Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…… [Read More]. The intended purpose of brand management was to solve sales problems through the use of research to understand weakening sales in distinct markets, followed by the design and implementation of strategies to turn around these markets.
This desired objective of brand management has remained the primary role of brand managers since McElroy explicitly stated his intent in However organizations in general, and brand managers in particular, need to be aware that forces other than the strategies of brand managers will affect brands,…… [Read More]. Business Requirements for Planned Phone. Daily teleconferences with business officers and frequent irregular visits by the same and other business officers will ensure compliance and efficiency standards are being met.
Minimizing environmental impact, both in real terms and in aesthetics, must also be taken into consideration. In this latter regard, location can drastically effect architecture and associated costs. Design constraints, also, must be geared towards maximizing efficiency. Clean rooms will be needed for some of the components used in manufacturing, and these areas should be both separate yet easily accessible from the other areas…… [Read More].
Business Ethics Issues a Company's. One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders.
On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Business Qs Specific Topics in. Cash in advance is a method that often seems preferable to the selling entity in a typical exporting transaction, as they receive the agreed-upon amount of cash or a credit card payment, which is equivalent to cash in this scenario for their goods prior to shipping them, guaranteeing the cash flow needed for the next cycle UNZCO This can create cash flow problems for the buy entity, however, as they must pay for the product before they receive cash from the end consumer and thus must carry the balance in the interim UNZCO Letters of credit, which give a guarantee from a financial institution to the exporter that the goods will be paid for assuming all conditions are met, provided added assurance to exporters that the transaction will truly be profitable, while insulating importers from the cash flow issues described above UNZCO A draft operates n a…… [Read More].
Business Management Organizational Change Discuss. Then they need to present the change to the employees as being realistic, reliable and measurable. There needs to be milestones set so that as the change process progresses the employees can see that the work that they are doing is actually accomplishing the goals that have been set forth.
What characteristics of Dr. Mimi Silbert, leader of the Delancey Street Foundation, make her approach to change so innovative and successful? Mimi Silbert does not share the same background as her fellow residents but she lives at Delancey Street, abides by its rules, and takes no salary. Her determined spirit and unlimited energy have built an organization that is unique in its entrepreneurial and self-governing structure.
Her dedication to enacting her vision of an educational community of change has inspired residents to break their destructive cycles and take responsibility for themselves and others. Silbert has gained national and…… [Read More]. Business Project Management What Are. This means that the client, executive management, the project team members, the project manager and all of the project stakeholders must be on the same page.
In order to have a successful project there must be a well developed project plan from the beginning. The only way to have this well developed project plan is to know where you are, where you want to be and how you are going to get there. Without everyone agreeing on what the focus of the project is there is no way to develop the road map that is necessary to have a successful project.
Everyone that is involved with the project, especially the project team as a whole should be committed to the project.
The project team truly has the greatest impact on the project's success; therefore, team members should have the greatest desire to see that the project is totally successful and…… [Read More].
Business Rhetoric Drilling in the Marcellus Shale. Drilling in the Marcellus Shale and Environmental Politics Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications.
However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly.
Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil. Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States. Business Ethics and Morality Many in the. Business Ethics and Morality Many in the business and sociology fields have attempted to separate the ideas of ethics and morality from religious beliefs.
Researchers have worked hard at identifying the principles which hold our societies together from the viewpoint which identifies the common good, or the well-being of the individual or organization as the foundation of moral or ethical behavior. However, this humanistic approach to morality voids the central thesis of what makes moral decisions important, and possible.
Moral decisions are based on a code of behavior which lies specifically outside ourselves, and is focused on building a common good on the basis of a moral understanding which is defined, and unchanging. Regardless of how broad a sociological perspective one takes, when morality is separated from an unchanging definition of right and wrong, the foundation changes from rock to sand, only waiting for the next sociological revolution to come…… [Read More].
The latest news on this front is from the United States. On the 5th of the current month, there was an announcement from the Labor Department that there has been growth in the United States economy and this had led to the creation of 21, new jobs.
The previous predictions from the economists had been that there would be a creation of , jobs, and this number is far below the expected growth. The number of jobs created is also far lower then the growth in population that occurred during that period. The rate of unemployment in…… [Read More]. Business Policy J-Food has an opportunity to become the first one to shift in the "all-you-can-eat steak buffet" notion to grow into a market leader.
The steady attractiveness of steak along with a perception of economy in buffet seems to be the perfect combination in foreign markets and is bound to produce the same results here Clancy et al. By analyzing the situation in the market, we have characterized groups into various subdivisions.
The only exclusion comes when we characterize our subdivision for lunch. We strongly trust, and have observed, that a much widespread desire prevails for this lunchtime slot because our pricing is on the economical side and includes our J-Food's Specialty Beef burger. The following are our targeted subdivisions Clancy et al. Business Ethics Criteria a Decision-Making.
Engage options in open discussion and debate Use debate to identify the two most viable options in the dilemma Hold a secret ballot vote to determine which of the two options resonates with the decision-making team Construct a timetable marking off expectations according to projected dates Use these dates as a feedback loop for evaluating the decision as its implications unfold Establish a second level in the feedback loop creating proper procedures and illuminating avenues to whistelblowing Encourage personnel to serve as whitleblowers when they witness abuses of the ethical policy Consult and renew the ethical code once a year to ensure that it still comports with the needs to address any ethical dilemmas which might arise in the foreseeable future Conclusion: With many of the corporate scandals of the early millennium implicating the highest offices of some leading firms, today's corporate atmosphere is informed by an emphasis on ethically…… [Read More].
Business Management -- Review of. The purpose of this study was twofold: The study relates directly to the understanding of organizational management in that transformational leadership is one leadership style that is common in many types of business and other professional organizations. The implications of the study apply to the appropriate selection of managers and leaders in specific organizations as well as to management training programs. The study appears to have been sound methodologically.
It relied on the quantitative analysis of interviews and self-ratings of leaders and of interviews of subordinates on the topic of transformational leader ratings and issues of personality in leaders. Business -- Political Science the. Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar.
This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers.
This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…… [Read More].
Business-Human Resources Introduction Review of. Proposed Plan for Improvement The above assessment of the current personnel management challenges facing the organization indicates that there are a number of pertinent issues that must be addressed if the organization is to effectively optimize its human resource capabilities and help facilitate the development of change in the organization. With this in mind, the proposed plan for organizational development focuses on two specific areas for improvement.
First, the proposed plan considers the need for the strategic development of human resource practice in the organization. Strategic human resource management will enable the organization to embed human resource function into the process of facilitating organizational objectives. Second, the proposed plan considers the need for a comprehensive change management program which will facilitate H integration while building the necessary organizational infrastructure to help improve change outcomes.
The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Karl Marx, first real business cycle theorist. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved December 2, from http: What are leading, lagging and coincident indicators? Major schools of economic theory. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
Retrieved March 8, from http: Economists warm to government spending but debate its form. It's Still a Puzzle. Retrieved November 10, from Library of Economics and Liberty website: Retrieved November 10, from Santa Monica College website: UK producer prices rise 0.
Accessed 12 May Business and Corporate View Full Essay. Cengage Learning McKern, B. Managing the global network corporation. Journal of Economic Perspectives. The Theory of Corporate Finance. What Has Motivated Diversification: Evidence from Corporate Governance?
Uner Kirdar and Leonard Silk. From Impoverishment to Empowerment. Retrieved 12 June from: United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 26 June from: How have current credit conditions affected your business, community or industry? Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Works Cited Gwartney, James D. Private and Public Choice. Electronics and Growth Cycles in Singapore. Suggest Suitable Fiscal policy and monetary policy to overcome the recession in economy. Business Cycle — A business cycle is also known as trade cycle.
It implies wave like fluctuations in the level of economic activity, particularly in national income a, employment and output. It is a short term picture of the behaviour of real output in a private enterprise economy. Business cycle refers to upturn and downturn in the level of economic activity that extends over a period of time.
The business fluctuations occur in aggregate variable such as national income, employment and price level. The variables nearly move at the same time and in the same direction. However they vary in duration and intensity.
Cyclic fluctuations have the following features:. Phases of business cycle: A business cycle can be divided into four phases. They are shown in the fig 1. Expansion or prosperity or the upswing 2.
Recession or upper-turning point 3. Contraction or depression or downswing 4. Revival or recovery or lower turning point. These phases are recurrent and uniform in case of different cycles.
But no phase has definite periodicity or time intervals. A business cycle starts from trough or low point, passes trough a recovery and prosperity phase, rises to peak, declines through a recession and depression phases and again reaches a trough.
In the boom period, the overall business activity is rising at a more rapid rate. There is a rise in real output and incomes of the people. There is a rise in production, prices, employment, wages, interest rates, profits and in the volume of bank credit. The general mood of the businessmen is that of optimism and commercial. The industrial activity both speculative and non-speculative shows remarkable expansion.
Construction activity gets a big boost. Share markets give good gains to the investors. Financial institutions tend to expand credit.
In the words of Haberler. During prosperity period, there is a high level of demand for capital goods and consumer goods and services. Risky investments are undertaken by the entrepreneurs. Inefficient firms enter into the market and manage to survive. The high level of demand for the various inputs creates shortage of some of them. The economy becomes supply constrained. The state of prosperity proves to be short lived and the downturn of its period starts.
The end of prosperity comes and enters into recession. Recession is a slowdown of business activity. In recession employment and output both decline. The forces which bring the contractionary phase of business fluctuations recession are as follows: The reduction in the purchasing powers of the workers brings down the demand for consumer goods b Due to shortage of some inputs the expansion in production of goods is hampered.
The financial institutions begin to recover the loans. The firms which are unable to pay back the loans begin to liquidate their stocks. When more firms sell their output at the same time the price level starts falling. If a few firms get involved in losses a wave of pessimism runs through the share markets. The firms begin to curtail production. Workers are laid off. The outstanding orders for raw materials are cancelled.
The new projects are shelved. The wave of pessimism passes on to other sectors of the economy and the businessmen become panicky and the whole economic system runs into crisis. Then the next stage of business cycle called depression starts. Depression is the most fearful stage of a trade cycle. The phase of depression also called slump is characterized by low economic activities, rapid decline in general output and employment.
The decline in economic activity is not uniform. There is much more decline in output in manufacturing mining construction transport industries. However there is comparatively less contraction in output in retail trade and agriculture. In slump, there is a marked fall in the average prices of the commodities. The costs are relatively higher the profits of the entrepreneurs decline. The purchasing power of the money is high but due to low income there is too much contraction in effective demand for consumer goods.
The expenditure on capital goods or its replacement greatly falls Most of the firms reduce their output or close down.
Business Essays - Business Cycles - Business cycles relate to fluctuating growth in economies and are measured using the gross domestic product for respective countries.
The business cycle, according to Paul Gregory's definition in our Essentials of Economics textbook, is the pattern of upward and downward movement in the general level of real business activity. In my own definition, the business cycle is a graph that shows you weather businesses in relation to the economy are in good or bad phases of 3/5(5).
Austrian business cycle theory is the economic theory started by the Austrian School of economics, concerning how business cycles occur. The theory views business cycles as the reason for excessive growth in bank credit, . Business Cycle – A business cycle is also known as trade cycle. It implies wave like fluctuations in the level of economic activity, particularly in national income a, employment and output. It is a short term picture of the behaviour of .
The four phases of business cycles are shown in the following diagram The business cycle starts from a trough (lower point) and passes through a recovery phase followed by a period of expansion (upper turning point) and prosperity. Dec 02, · View and download business cycle essays examples. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your business cycle essay.