These themes not only provide the focus for the critical examinations of the growth machine thesis, but also offer exciting new ways of thinking about and researching urban politics and local economic development. As Harvey Molotch himself notes in this book's concluding chapter, "The growth machine idea makes a substantive argument about the empirical substance of U. It asserts that virtually every city and state government is a growth machine and long has been.
It asserts that this puts localities in chronic competition with one another in ways that harm the vast majority of their citizens as well as their environments. It anticipates an ideological structure that naturalizes growth goals as a background assumption of civic life.
In a social science realm where successful empirical generalizations have been few, the growth machine idea robustly and usefully describes reality. Cox, Kyle Crowder, Melissa R. Ideology and the Growth Coalition Kevin R. Some Reflections Keith Bassett You Have 0 Item s In Cart. Click on image to enlarge. Jonas - Editor David Wilson - Editor.
Related Titles Practical Government Budgeting. The Ideology of Administration. Letters of Louis D. Perspectives on Ecosystem Management for the Great Lakes. It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence. If this machine U is supplied with the tape on the beginning of which is written the string of quintuples separated by semicolons of some computing machine M , then U will compute the same sequence as M.
This finding is now taken for granted, but at the time it was considered astonishing. The model of computation that Turing called his "universal machine"—" U " for short—is considered by some cf. Davis to have been the fundamental theoretical breakthrough that led to the notion of the stored-program computer. In terms of computational complexity , a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates.
This result was obtained in by F. Arora and Barak, , theorem 1. It is often said [ who? What is neglected in this statement is that, because a real machine can only have a finite number of configurations , this "real machine" is really nothing but a linear bounded automaton.
On the other hand, Turing machines are equivalent to machines that have an unlimited amount of storage space for their computations.
However, Turing machines are not intended to model computers, but rather they are intended to model computation itself. Historically, computers, which compute only on their fixed internal storage, were developed only later.
A limitation of Turing machines is that they do not model the strengths of a particular arrangement well. For instance, modern stored-program computers are actually instances of a more specific form of abstract machine known as the random-access stored-program machine or RASP machine model. Like the universal Turing machine the RASP stores its "program" in "memory" external to its finite-state machine's "instructions".
Unlike the universal Turing machine, the RASP has an infinite number of distinguishable, numbered but unbounded "registers"—memory "cells" that can contain any integer cf. Elgot and Robinson , Hartmanis , and in particular Cook-Rechow ; references at random access machine. The RASP's finite-state machine is equipped with the capability for indirect addressing e. The upshot of this distinction is that there are computational optimizations that can be performed based on the memory indices, which are not possible in a general Turing machine; thus when Turing machines are used as the basis for bounding running times, a 'false lower bound' can be proven on certain algorithms' running times due to the false simplifying assumption of a Turing machine.
An example of this is binary search , an algorithm that can be shown to perform more quickly when using the RASP model of computation rather than the Turing machine model. Another limitation of Turing machines is that they do not model concurrency well.
For example, there is a bound on the size of integer that can be computed by an always-halting nondeterministic Turing machine starting on a blank tape. See article on unbounded nondeterminism. By contrast, there are always-halting concurrent systems with no inputs that can compute an integer of unbounded size. A process can be created with local storage that is initialized with a count of 0 that concurrently sends itself both a stop and a go message.
When it receives a go message, it increments its count by 1 and sends itself a go message. When it receives a stop message, it stops with an unbounded number in its local storage.
In the early days of computing, computer use was typically limited to batch processing , i. Computability theory, which studies computability of functions from inputs to outputs, and for which Turing machines were invented, reflects this practice.
Since the s, interactive use of computers became much more common. Robin Gandy — —a student of Alan Turing — and his lifelong friend—traces the lineage of the notion of "calculating machine" back to Charles Babbage circa and actually proposes "Babbage's Thesis":.
That the whole of development and operations of analysis are now capable of being executed by machinery. Gandy's analysis of Babbage's Analytical Engine describes the following five operations cf. Gandy states that "the functions which can be calculated by 1 , 2 , and 4 are precisely those which are Turing computable.
The fundamental importance of conditional iteration and conditional transfer for a general theory of calculating machines is not recognized…. With regard to Hilbert's problems posed by the famous mathematician David Hilbert in , an aspect of problem 10 had been floating about for almost 30 years before it was framed precisely. Hilbert's original expression for 10 is as follows:. Determination of the solvability of a Diophantine equation.
Given a Diophantine equation with any number of unknown quantities and with rational integral coefficients: To devise a process according to which it can be determined in a finite number of operations whether the equation is solvable in rational integers. The Entscheidungsproblem [decision problem for first-order logic ] is solved when we know a procedure that allows for any given logical expression to decide by finitely many operations its validity or satisfiability The Entscheidungsproblem must be considered the main problem of mathematical logic.
By , this notion of " Entscheidungsproblem " had developed a bit, and H. If one were able to solve the Entscheidungsproblem then one would have a "procedure for solving many or even all mathematical problems". By the international congress of mathematicians, Hilbert "made his questions quite precise. First, was mathematics complete Second, was mathematics consistent And thirdly, was mathematics decidable?
The problem was that an answer first required a precise definition of " definite general applicable prescription ", which Princeton professor Alonzo Church would come to call " effective calculability ", and in no such definition existed.
But over the next 6—7 years Emil Post developed his definition of a worker moving from room to room writing and erasing marks per a list of instructions Post , as did Church and his two students Stephen Kleene and J.
Church's paper published 15 April showed that the Entscheidungsproblem was indeed "undecidable" and beat Turing to the punch by almost a year Turing's paper submitted 28 May , published January In the meantime, Emil Post submitted a brief paper in the fall of , so Turing at least had priority over Post. While Church refereed Turing's paper, Turing had time to study Church's paper and add an Appendix where he sketched a proof that Church's lambda-calculus and his machines would compute the same functions.
But what Church had done was something rather different, and in a certain sense weaker. And Post had only proposed a definition of calculability and criticized Church's "definition", but had proved nothing. In the spring of , Turing as a young Master's student at King's College Cambridge , UK , took on the challenge; he had been stimulated by the lectures of the logician M.
Newman used the word 'mechanical' In his obituary of Turing Newman writes:. To the question 'what is a "mechanical" process?
I suppose, but do not know, that Turing, right from the start of his work, had as his goal a proof of the undecidability of the Entscheidungsproblem.
He told me that the 'main idea' of the paper came to him when he was lying in Grantchester meadows in the summer of The 'main idea' might have either been his analysis of computation or his realization that there was a universal machine, and so a diagonal argument to prove unsolvability. While Gandy believed that Newman's statement above is "misleading", this opinion is not shared by all. Turing had a lifelong interest in machines: Turing had a typewriter; and he could well have begun by asking himself what was meant by calling a typewriter 'mechanical'" Hodges p.
His PhD thesis, titled "Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals", contains the following definition of "a computable function":.
It was stated above that 'a function is effectively calculable if its values can be found by some purely mechanical process'.
We may take this statement literally, understanding by a purely mechanical process one which could be carried out by a machine. It is possible to give a mathematical description, in a certain normal form, of the structures of these machines. The development of these ideas leads to the author's definition of a computable function, and to an identification of computability with effective calculability.
Arguments still continue concerning the origin and nature of what has been named by Kleene Turing's Thesis. But what Turing did prove with his computational-machine model appears in his paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem" I propose, therefore to show that there can be no general process for determining whether a given formula U of the functional calculus K is provable, i.
Turing's example his second proof: If one is to ask for a general procedure to tell us: In , while at Princeton working on his PhD thesis, Turing built a digital Boolean-logic multiplier from scratch, making his own electromechanical relays Hodges p. While Turing might have been just initially curious and experimenting, quite-earnest work in the same direction was going in Germany Konrad Zuse , and in the United States Howard Aiken and George Stibitz ; the fruits of their labors were used by both the Axis and Allied militaries in World War II cf.
In the early to mids Hao Wang and Marvin Minsky reduced the Turing machine to a simpler form a precursor to the Post—Turing machine of Martin Davis ; simultaneously European researchers were reducing the new-fangled electronic computer to a computer-like theoretical object equivalent to what was now being called a "Turing machine".
In the late s and early s, the coincidentally parallel developments of Melzak and Lambek , Minsky , and Shepherdson and Sturgis carried the European work further and reduced the Turing machine to a more friendly, computer-like abstract model called the counter machine ; Elgot and Robinson , Hartmanis , Cook and Reckhow carried this work even further with the register machine and random-access machine models—but basically all are just multi-tape Turing machines with an arithmetic-like instruction set.
Today, the counter, register and random-access machines and their sire the Turing machine continue to be the models of choice for theorists investigating questions in the theory of computation. In particular, computational complexity theory makes use of the Turing machine:. Depending on the objects one likes to manipulate in the computations numbers like nonnegative integers or alphanumeric strings , two models have obtained a dominant position in machine-based complexity theory:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Deterministic Turing machine. Rule based abstract computation model. For other uses, see Turing machine disambiguation. Classes of automata Clicking on each layer will take you to an article on that subject. For visualizations of Turing machines, see Turing machine gallery. Turing machine equivalents , Register machine , and Post—Turing machine.
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