A good research question should specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field and of course be compliant with the standards of ethical boards and national research standards. Adapted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health. Whereas the FINER criteria outline the important aspects of the question in general, a useful format to use in the development of a specific research question is the PICO format — consider the population P of interest, the intervention I being studied, the comparison C group or to what is the intervention being compared and the outcome of interest O.
Knowing the specific population of interest, intervention and comparator and outcome of interest may also help the researcher identify an appropriate outcome measurement tool.
Conversely, a broadly defined study population and inclusion criteria may be representative of practical clinical practice but may increase bias and reduce the internal validity of the study. A poorly devised research question may affect the choice of study design, potentially lead to futile situations and, thus, hamper the chance of determining anything of clinical significance, which will then affect the potential for publication.
Without devoting appropriate resources to developing the research question, the quality of the study and subsequent results may be compromised. During the initial stages of any research study, it is therefore imperative to formulate a research question that is both clinically relevant and answerable. The primary research question should be driven by the hypothesis rather than the data.
This sounds intuitive; however, if we take, for example, a database of information, it is potentially possible to perform multiple statistical comparisons of groups within the database to find a statistically significant association. Multiple statistical testing of associations from data previously collected could potentially lead to spuriously positive findings of association through chance alone. The research or clinical hypothesis is developed from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention if applicable , comparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance.
The investigative team would first state a research hypothesis. This could be expressed as a single outcome e. The null hypothesis for the preceding research hypothesis then would be that there is no difference in mean functional outcome between the computer-assisted insertion and free-hand placement techniques. After forming the null hypothesis, the researchers would form an alternate hypothesis stating the nature of the difference, if it should appear.
The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a difference in mean functional outcome between these techniques. At the end of the study, the null hypothesis is then tested statistically. If the findings of the study are not statistically significant i. In other words, hypothesis testing confirms or refutes the statement that the observed findings did not occur by chance alone but rather occurred because there was a true difference in outcomes between these surgical procedures.
The concept of statistical hypothesis testing is complex, and the details are beyond the scope of this article. Another important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided.
A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, but it does not specify in advance the expected direction of the difference. For example, we asked whether there is there an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery or whether the outcomes worse with computer-assisted surgery.
We presented a 2-sided test in the above example because we did not specify the direction of the difference. A 1-sided hypothesis states a specific direction e. A 2-sided hypothesis should be used unless there is a good justification for using a 1-sided hypothesis.
The research hypothesis should be stated at the beginning of the study to guide the objectives for research. Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided there is an improvement with treatment , the study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise. According to this principle, a clinical or surgical trial is ethical only if the expert community is uncertain about the relative therapeutic merits of the experimental and control groups being evaluated.
Designing a research hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research objective. The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol.
Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question. They also want to know that they can complete your questionnaire without the hassle of dinner time calls. Designing a questionnaire may sound simple until you sit down to write the questions. Planning, content creation and graphic design are all important.
Not everyone has the time or the professional design skills to create a questionnaire. Now that you know how helpful and effective questionnaires and surveys can be, get a free Survey Anyplace account! As the CEO of Survey Anyplace, Stefan focuses on how to get the best results from the tool - preferably backed with real-life data.
Please help me with the disadvantages of mail questionnaires as a method of primary data collection in business research. Thanks so much for this article,it was an eye opener when i was writing my assignment on this topic. Your writing style has been surprised me. Thanks, quite nice article. Please enter an answer in digits: A questionnaire and survey are not the same. Questionnaires are cost-efficient Questionnaires are one of the most affordable ways to gather quantitative data. Scalability Questionnaires and surveys allow you to gather information from a large audience.
Cover all aspects of a topic One of the biggest advantages is being able to ask as many questions as you like. Dishonesty While there are many positives to questionnaires, dishonesty can be an issue. Differences in understanding and interpretation The trouble with not presenting questions to users face-to-face is that each may have different interpretations of your questions.
Hard to convey feelings and emotions A survey or questionnaire cannot fully capture emotional responses or the feelings of the respondents. Some questions are difficult to analyze Questionnaires produce a lot of data. Respondents may have a hidden agenda As with any sort of research, bias can be an issue. Lack of personalization Customization is the prevailing marketing theme.
Skipped questions When using questionnaires, there is a chance that some questions will be ignored. Accessibility issues No matter what form of delivery is used, lack of accessibility is a threat. Advantages of Using Online Questionnaires There are numerous advantages to using online questionnaires. Did you like this post? Comments Shells August 17, Please help me with the disadvantages of mail questionnaires as a method of primary data collection in business research.
Grace August 2, Well understood. Sheila June 20, Comprehensive article. It has really helped dad June 4, great info Hildah kyms June 4, Wow Thanks Jacque binny November 23, The information is well understand thaks Shahzadi Fiza November 18, Great article, helped me a lot.
Dajan Panashe October 8, Very informative. Thank you very much meghana swaraj August 9, nice informative blog on Questionnaire and surveys. Lifu Shangu July 27, Informative and easy to follow. Far much less jargon! Crescencia Ndlovu August 21, Thanks so much for this article,it was an eye opener when i was writing my assignment on this topic.
Cancel reply Add your comment. Want to learn more? Subscribe to our Newsletter and get hand-picked articles directly to your inbox. No spam, we promise! Don't bore, get more! Create an engaging survey in minutes. No Credit Card required Sign Up. We can either distribute questionnaires via post, electronically via the internet or face-to-face on the street.
Once we have distributed your questionnaires and collected the replies, we can arrange for typed transcriptions to be provided for you. We are aware that your questionnaires will be of utmost importance to your research project and therefore that you will want to take the greatest precaution in ensuring that such questionnaires are designed and distributed in the most professional manner possible.
As such, if you are interested in our service, then one of our Primary Research Advisors would be happy to discuss with you all of the details of your work. To discuss The Field Work Service with one of our advisors, please call or contact us via our contact form.
Questionnaires and Surveys Services we can provide include but are not limited to: Questionnaire Template Design Using this service, your researcher will design a questionnaire template that is perfect for the particular research that you would like to be conducted.
Primary research: Questionnaires Why should I use questionnaires as part of my primary research? Questionnaires allow you to find out information such as facts, attitudes and opinions. They are a simple way to gather short responses to questions from people. Questionnaires are less time consuming than interviews and can easily be kept .
Primary research is designed to meet your unique and specific needs. This fundamental research is conducted by you (if you're on a tight budget), or by a research firm that you hire for the project—usually a firm that comes recommended by a colleague. The research can include focus groups, surveys, interviews, and observations.
Questionnaires and surveys are a comprehensive and inexpensive means of gathering large amounts of both quantitative and qualitative primary data. Questionnaires and surveys usually have simple designs and can be quickly distributed to . Questionnaires can include the following types of questions: Open question valencia-cityguide.ga questions differ from other types of questions used in questionnaires in a way that open questions may produce unexpected results, which can make the research more original and valuable.
Introduction to Primary Research: Observations, Surveys, and Interviews by Dana Lynn Driscoll This essay is a chapter in Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2, a peer-reviewed open textbook series for the writing classroom. When conducting primary market research, you can gather two basic types of information: exploratory or specific. Exploratory research is open-ended, helps you define a specific problem, and.