The details were irrelevant. The descriptions of Armstrong as a champion are not actually referring to some official title, but instead that he was known as the toughest man in the area. We reached out to researchers at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation for more information; they told us that Lincoln was never an official county wrestling champion in Illinois, but for a very good reason: Born in a log cabin in Kentucky, Abraham Lincoln received little schooling as his family moved through the wilderness, but he read and reread the Bible and the few other books he could get hold of.
Growing up in Illinois, he clerked in a store, studied law, served in the Black Hawk War and took part in political talk of the day.
Lincoln, an awesome physical specimen at 6-feet-4, was widely known for his wrestling skills and had only one recorded defeat in a dozen years. The National Wrestling Hall of Fame is dedicated to athletes who practice a traditional version of the sport. Although the image include in this meme might suggest that Lincoln was a member of the WWE Wrestling Hall of Fame, that is not the case.
This rumor, however, is rooted in some truth. We know that Lincoln frequently engaged in wrestling matches and that he was especially skilled at the sport. In fact, when Lincoln was reminiscing about his wrestling days on the campaign trail in , he told Risdon Moore, a college professor whose father served with Lincoln during the Black Hawk War, that he was undefeated until he was thrown by a man named Lorenzo Dow Thompson:.
Gentleman, I felt of Mr. Clair champion, and told my boys I could throw him, and they could bet what they pleased. You see, I had never been thrown, or dusted, as the phrase then was, and, I believe, Thompson said the same to the St. Clair boys, that they might bet their bottom dollar that he could down me.
We took our holds, his choice first, a side hold. I think realized from his grip for the first time that he was a powerful man and that i have no easy job. The struggle was a severe one, but after many passes and efforts he threw me. We took our holds again and after the fiercest struggle of the kind that I ever had, he threw me again, almost as easily at my hold as at his own. My men raised another protest, but I again told them it was a fair down.
Why, gentlemen, that man could throw a grizzly bear. Of course, this may have to do with the fact that many of these stories were retold as Lincoln was running for president, and may therefore have been presented by that time in a far more favorable light. Lincoln reportedly said this phrase after a raucous battle with his stepbrother, John Johnston, which was initiated by a man named William Grigsby. As Sandburg tells it, Lincoln defeated Johnston, went searching for Grigsby in the crowd, threw the man into the middle of the ring, and then sparked an all out brawl when he issued this challenge to the crowd:.
The following month, Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act of , which declared that all Confederate slaves taking refuge behind Union lines were to be set free. Union victories in and secured the border states, which in turn freed Lincoln's hand to pursue more aggressive anti-slavery policies. On July 22, , Lincoln read to his cabinet a preliminary draft of a proclamation calling for emancipation of all slaves in the Confederacy. As the Union had suffered several defeats in the early part of the war, Seward convinced Lincoln to announce this emancipation plan after a significant Union victory so that it would not seem like a move of desperation.
The Emancipation Proclamation, announced on September 22 and put in effect January 1, , applied in the eleven states that were still in rebellion in The proclamation did not cover the nearly , slaves in the slave-holding border states that had remained in the Union, nor did it apply to Tennessee or West Virginia, both of which were largely under the control of Union forces. As Southern states were subdued, critical decisions had to be made as to the leadership and policies of these states.
Louisiana, which had a larger slave population than other Confederate state occupied early in the war, became the center of discussion regarding Reconstruction under Lincoln and military governor Benjamin Butler.
Banks , implemented a labor system in which free blacks worked as laborers on white-owned plantations. This model, which paid blacks wages but also represented a continuation of plantation agriculture, was adopted throughout much of the occupied South. After , Democrats like Reverdy Johnson sought the withdrawal of the Emancipation Proclamation and amnesty for the Confederates.
By contrast, Radical Republicans like Sumner argued that rebel Southerners had lost all rights by attempting to secede from the Union. In his ten percent plan , Lincoln sought to find a middle ground, calling for the emancipation of Confederate slaves and the re-integration of Southern states once ten percent of voters in a state took an oath of allegiance to the U.
As the Wade-Davis Bill interfered with Lincoln's plans for the readmission of Louisiana and Arkansas, Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill in late Even as they cooperated on most other issues, Lincoln and congressional Republicans continued to clash over Reconstruction policies after the election.
Many in Congress sought far-reaching reforms to Southern society that went beyond the abolition of slavery, and they refused to recognize Lincoln's reconstituted Southern governments.
Disagreements within Congress prevented the passage of any Reconstruction bill or the recognition of governments in Arkansas and Louisiana. Historian Eric Foner notes that no one knows what Lincoln would have done about Reconstruction had he served out his second term, but writes,.
Unlike Sumner and other Radicals, Lincoln did not see Reconstruction as an opportunity for a sweeping political and social revolution beyond emancipation. He had long made clear his opposition to the confiscation and redistribution of land. He believed, as most Republicans did in April , that the voting requirements should be determined by the states. He assumed that political control in the South would pass to white Unionists, reluctant secessionists, and forward-looking former Confederates.
But time and again during the war, Lincoln, after initial opposition, and come to embrace positions first advanced by abolitionists and Radical Republicans Lincoln undoubtedly would have listened carefully to the outcry for further protection for the former slaves It is entirely plausible to imagine Lincoln and Congress agreeing on a Reconstruction policy that encompassed federal protection for basic civil rights plus limited black suffrage, along the lines Lincoln proposed just before his death.
In December , a proposed constitutional amendment that would outlaw slavery was introduced in Congress; though the Senate voted for the amendment with the necessary two-thirds majority, the amendment did not receive sufficient support in the House.
With the aid of large Republican majorities in both houses of Congress, Lincoln believed that he could permanently end the institution of slavery in the United States.
Rather than waiting for the 39th Congress to convene in March, Lincoln pressed the lame duck session of the 38th Congress to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment as soon as possible. After an extensive lobbying campaign by Lincoln and Seward, the House narrowly cleared the two-thirds threshold in a vote. With the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, some abolitionist leaders viewed their work as complete, though Frederick Douglass believed that "slavery is not abolished until the black man has the ballot.
In the decades prior to the Civil War, Southern congressmen had blocked the passage of various economic proposals, including federal funding for internal improvements , support for higher education, and increased tariff rates designed to protect domestic manufacturing against foreign competition.
The 37th Congress , which met from to , passed public acts, more than double the number of the 27th Congress , which had previously held the record for most public acts passed. The 38th Congress, meeting from to , passed public acts. Many of these bills were designed to raise revenue for funding the war, as federal expenses increased seven-fold in the first year of the Civil War.
Congress passed several measures to provide funding for the war, some of which affected long-lasting changes. Lincoln signed the Revenue Act of , creating the first federal income tax.
The Revenue Act of also established an excise tax that affected nearly every commodity,  as well as the first national inheritance tax. These tariffs raised import duties considerably compared to previous tariffs, and were designed to both raise revenue and protect domestic manufacturing against foreign competition. During the war, the tariff also helped manufacturers off-set the burden of new taxes. Compared to pre-war levels, the tariff would remain relatively high for the remainder of the 19th century.
Greenbacks were the first banknotes issued by the federal government of the United States since the end of the American Revolution , although state-chartered private banks in the U. Greenbacks were not backed by gold or silver , but rather by the promise of the United States government to honor their value. The act, which was followed by another major banking bill in , was designed to help provide a uniform currency that would eventually supplant the banknotes issued by state-chartered banks.
Many of the bills passed by the 37th and 38th Congress were designed at least in part to pay for the war, but other bills instituted long-term reforms in areas unrelated to revenue. Under the act, settlers would be granted acres of public land if they invested five years into developing the land. The law gave each member of Congress 30, acres of public land to sell, with proceeds funding the establishment of land-grant colleges. The Pacific Railway Acts of and granted federal support for the construction of the United States' First Transcontinental Railroad , which was completed in In June , Lincoln approved the Yosemite Grant enacted by Congress, which provided unprecedented federal protection for the area now known as Yosemite National Park.
Before Lincoln's presidency, Thanksgiving, while a regional holiday in New England since the 17th century, had been proclaimed by the federal government only sporadically and on irregular dates. In the aftermath of the attack on Fort Sumter, Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and began to imprison suspected Confederate sympathizers. In , Seward set up a special office in the State Department designed to monitor internal security, and the federal government and local police officers worked together to suppress those suspected of actively supporting the Confederacy.
In the subsequent case of Ex parte Merryman , Chief Justice Taney asserted that only Congress had the right to suspend habeas corpus. In a message to Congress delivered in July , Lincoln responded by arguing that his actions had been constitutional and necessary given the threat posed by the Confederacy. As the war continued, many in the North came to resist the sacrifices required by the war, and recruiting declined. The conscription act included various exemptions and allowed potential draftees to pay for substitutes, but it nonetheless proved unpopular in many communities and among many state and local leaders.
The New York City draft riots of July saw mobs attack soldiers, policemen, and African Americans, and was only subdued after Lincoln diverted soldiers from the Gettysburg Campaign.
Rejecting calls to institute martial law in the city, Lincoln appointed John Adams Dix to oversee New York City, and Dix allowed the city hold civilian trials on those who had participated in the riots. Clement Vallandigham , a Copperhead Democrat from Ohio, emerged as one of the most prominent critics of the war. General Ambrose Burnside arrested Vallandigham in May after the latter strongly criticized the draft and other wartime policies.
A military commission subsequently sentenced Vallandigham to imprisonment until the end of the war, but Lincoln intervened to have Vallandigham released into Confederate territory. Ohio Democrats nonetheless nominated Vallandigham for governor in June Conflicts with Native Americans on the American frontier continued during the Civil War, as American settlers continued to push west.
Presented with execution warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who were accused of killing innocent farmers, Lincoln conducted his own personal review of each of these warrants, eventually approving 39 for execution one was later reprieved. However, as the war to preserve the Union was Lincoln's primary concern, he simply allowed the system to function unchanged for the balance of his presidency. Two new states were admitted to the Union while Lincoln was in office.
In the June Wheeling Convention, delegates from several counties in western Virginia formed the Restored Government of Virginia , ostensibly as the legitimate government of Virginia. In the following year, the people of West Virginia voted to secede from Virginia, and a new state constitution was written.
West Virginia , the Supreme Court implicitly affirmed that the breakaway Virginia counties did have the proper consents necessary to become a separate state. Congress approved an enabling act authorizing Nevada Territory to form a state government in March ; similar legislation was also approved for Colorado Territory and Nebraska Territory.
Nebraska's constitutional convention voted against statehood, while voters in Colorado rejected the proposed state constitution, so of those three territories, only Nevada became a state during Lincoln's presidency.
Although they remained out of the war, the European powers, especially France and Britain , factored into the American Civil War in various ways.
European leaders saw the division of the United States as having the potential to eliminate, or at least greatly weaken, a growing rival. They looked for ways to exploit the inability of the U.
Spain invaded the Dominican Republic in , while France established a puppet regime in Mexico. Lincoln's foreign policy was deficient in in terms of appealing to European public opinion. The European aristocracy the dominant factor in every major country was "absolutely gleeful in pronouncing the American debacle as proof that the entire experiment in popular government had failed.
Confederate spokesman, on the other hand, were much more successful by ignoring slavery and instead focusing on their struggle for liberty, their commitment to free trade, and the essential role of cotton in the European economy. Any chance of a European intervention in the war ended with the Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, as European leaders came to believe that the Confederate cause was doomed.
Elite opinion in Britain tended to favor the Confederacy, but public opinion tended to favor the United States. Large scale trade continued in both directions with the United States, with the Americans shipping grain to Britain while Britain exported manufactured items and munitions.
British trade with the Confederacy was limited, with a trickle of cotton going to Britain and some munitions slipped in by numerous small blockade runners.
A serious diplomatic dispute between the U. The Union Navy intercepted a British mail ship, the Trent , on the high seas and seized two Confederate envoys en route to Europe. The incident aroused public outrage in Britain; the government of Lord Palmerston protested vehemently, while the American public cheered.
Lincoln ended the crisis, known as the Trent Affair , by releasing the two diplomats, who had been seized illegally. British financiers built and operated most of the blockade runners , spending hundreds of millions of pounds on them; but that was legal and not the cause of serious tension.
They were staffed by sailors and officers on leave from the Royal Navy. Navy captured one of the fast blockade runners, it sold the ship and cargo as prize money for the American sailors, then released the crew. In December , France invaded Mexico. While the official justification was the collection of debts, France eventually established a puppet state under the rule of Maximilian I of Mexico.
However, this proposal was declined by the other European powers, who feared alienating the North. Napoleon's bellicose stance towards Russia in the January Uprising divided the powers and greatly diminished any chance of a joint European intervention. With the end of the American Civil War in , the U.
Lincoln was shot in the back of his head by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. The mortally wounded president was immediately examined by a doctor in the audience and then carried across the street to Petersen's Boarding House where he died At 7: They hoped to revive the Confederate cause by creating chaos through destabilizing the federal government.
Although Booth succeeded in killing Lincoln, the larger plot failed. Seward was attacked, but recovered from his wounds, and Johnson's would-be assassin fled Washington upon losing his nerve.
With the failure of the plot to assassinate Johnson, Johnson succeeded Lincoln, becoming the 17th President of the United States.
In surveys of U. Generally, the top three presidents are rated as 1. George Washington; and 3. Roosevelt, although Lincoln and Washington, and Washington and Roosevelt, are occasionally reversed. The successful reunification of the states had consequences for the name of the country. The term "the United States" has historically been used, sometimes in the plural "these United States" , and other times in the singular, without any particular grammatical consistency.
The Civil War was a significant force in the eventual dominance of the singular usage by the end of the 19th century. The Union victory and the subsequent Supreme Court case of Texas v. White ended debate regarding the constitutionality of secession and Nullification by the states. In addition to ending slavery, the Reconstruction Amendments enshrined Constitutional clauses promoting racial equality. As early as the s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the sanctity of the Constitution, Lincoln redirected emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values—what he called the "sheet anchor" of republicanism.
As Diggins concludes regarding the highly influential Cooper Union speech of early , "Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln. List of federal judges appointed by Abraham Lincoln. Battle of Fort Sumter. States that seceded before April 15, States that seceded after April 15, States that permitted slavery, but did not secede. States of the Union where slavery was banned.
Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Gettysburg Campaign and Gettysburg Address. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow, this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.
The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
United States presidential election, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Union American Civil War. Native Americans in the American Civil War. Diplomacy of the American Civil War. United Kingdom and the American Civil War. France and the American Civil War. Abraham Lincoln cultural depictions. The Oxford History of the American People. Dave Leip's Atlas of U. Burlingame writes, "Lincoln's unwillingness to make a public declaration may have been a mistake.
Such a document might have allayed fears in the Upper South and Border States and predisposed them to remain in the Union when hostilities broke out. But it might also have wrecked the Republican coalition and doomed his administration to failure before it began. The Impending Crisis — Abraham Lincoln, March 4, ". Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Retrieved April 9, Michigan and Drexel U. Archived from the original on October 22, Goodwin writes, "Every member of this administration was better known, better educated, and more experienced in public life than Lincoln.
I want to put them all in my cabinet. Thomas and Harold M. Presidents and their Justices. University Press of America. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved 11 August Naval War College Review. The Collapse of the Confederacy p. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln , vol. To Make Men Free: A History of the Republican Party. Retrieved December 21, What Shall We Do with the Negro?
University of Virginia Press. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library. The destruction of slavery. Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. Retrieved 14 February Retrieved February 20, West Virginia 78 U. The Pruett Series 10th ed. Retrieved February 25, Elko Daily Free Press. The Online Nevada Encyclopedia. Doyle, The Cause of All Nations: A Reconsideration," Journal of Southern History, 38 1 pp.
Lincoln Shot at Ford's Theater". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved April 21, International World History Project. Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved April 26, Retrieved 14 July By Sea and By River: The naval history of the Civil War. New York, New York: His Speeches and Writings". Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln 9 vols.
Johns Hopkins University Press. Lincoln and the First Shot. Donald, David Herbert Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America. America's Unfinished Revolution First ed. Goodwin, Doris Kearns The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln Sesquicentennial Lectures at the University of Illinois. University of Illinois Press. Lincoln's Rise to the Presidency. From Colony to Superpower: Foreign Relations Since Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter, A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War.
Sumter, Secession, and the Coming of the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. Jr, The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties The Last Best Hope of Earth. Lincoln and the Indians: Civil War Politics and Policy. Paludan, Phillip Shaw The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln. University Press of Kansas. Lincoln and His Admirals. The Words That Remade America. The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln". Bibliography of Abraham Lincoln.
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Abraham Lincoln , 16th President of the United States. White House , Washington, D. This article is part of a series about Abraham Lincoln. William Seward left and Gideon Wells right served in Lincoln's cabinet throughout his presidency. Secretary of the Navy.
Abraham Lincoln became the United States’ 16th President in , issuing the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy in Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war.
Abraham Lincoln is considered by many to be America's greatest president. Sadly, his vision of how to reunite the North and South after the Civil War was not given a chance to come to fruition. This page provides a list of fast facts for Abraham Lincoln.
Aug 26, · 2 Terms. Abraham Lincoln was elected for a second term as US President, and inaugurated into office on March 4, He was assassinated on . Abraham Lincoln created peanut butter and wanted to give credit for it to a black person so the southerners would accept the blacks as their equals.
Facts, information and articles about the life of Abraham Lincoln, 16th President Of the United States Abraham Lincoln Facts Born February 12, , Hodgenville, Kentucky Died April 15, , Petersen House, Washington, D.C. cointent_lockedcontent Presidential Term March 4, – April 15, Spouse Mary Todd Lincoln Major Accomplishments Served Four Terms in Illinois Legislature . Watch video · Abraham Lincoln served a single term in the U.S. House of Representatives from to His foray into national politics seemed to be as unremarkable as it was brief.