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❶Examples of constructionist theories include labeling, relativist, phenomenological, and power theory.

Drugs and Deviance

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White-Collar and Corporate Crime

This program is chosen because it clearly displays social deviance. Write a social sciences essay based on a documentary or film. Easy A movie Deviance is an unavoidable part of human nature, and as such, is…. Abstract The purpose of this study is to better understand the difference between normal and abnormal behavior in society.

Everyone has their own perception of what is normal and what is abnormal and live their lives accordingly. The purpose here is show that there is no definite way of living and that we each live….

Deviance, criminal behavior and wrong doings; why do they occur? There has to be something in their past or present experiences that cause one to engage in criminal behavior. It is very important for adults who are responsible for children in there formative years to know this. Children are influenced by everything they see. Adults should also be aware of the years in which they have the skills able to identify and do what they see.

Children do not all develop at the same…. The last decade has seen a dramatic rise in spectacular forms of body modification, including the tattoo renaissance and the phenomena of body piercing, the emergence of neo-tribal practices like scarification and the invention of new, high-tech forms of body art like sub-dermal implants.

Therefore, body modification practices have proven to be an interesting field…. I will start off my research by saying you must know what deviance means and how to identify what represents deviant behavior.

You ask yourself what is a social norm and…. Various theories have been put forward to explain the causes of crime and delinquency in society. The Labelling theory of crime argues that the tendency to perceive and treat people as offenders precipitates their engagement in crime. It is based on the hypothesis that people will assume the labels that they have been given to….

Deviance is part of every culture and society, it is the border line between acceptable and intolerable behavior. The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied, deviant behavior is behavior that people label. Through out history, there…. Everything done in private would be just as if it was done…. The sociology of deviance refers to the concept of deviant behavior or actions that tend to defy existing social norms or actions that are against generally accepted patterns of behavior.

Kendall Sociologists believe that deviance is a relative concept because what a certain society believes to be acceptable may be perceived differently by another…. A deviant behavior is one diverging sharply from a customary, traditional, or generally accepted standard, or displaying such divergent behavior. It is any nonstandard, aberrant, and irregular, out of the ordinary, unusual or unexpected act. Psychologists have identified deviance as an act of self-defense or a show of self-defeat.

People, though have different reasons of…. In extreme cases corporations have even violated international laws governing national sovereignty to protect their financial interests when threatened. Both white-collar and corporate crime is committed primarily for financial gain. What distinguishes these types of deviance from others is that the perpetrators often do not see themselves as committing crimes.

Rather, they see themselves as industry innovators persecuted for their business success. Ex-Enron chief executive officer Jeffrey Skilling, convicted of fraud and insider trading, consistently characterized his activities as innovative rather than illegal.

Another major area concerning deviance relates to drug abuse and efforts by law enforcement to curb distribution. Drug abuse is not limited to illegal substances such as heroin and cocaine. It also includes abuse of over-the-counter and prescription drugs, most commonly pain medications. Reasons for drug abuse are varied, ranging from escapism to recreational use.

Drug abuse occurs throughout all socioeconomic levels, but social class is a factor in the type of drug used. For example, professional and middle- to upper-class abusers typically use cocaine, whereas lower-class abusers more commonly use crack, a cocaine derivative. A major issue related to drug abuse is how society determines which drugs are legal. This question is often not answered based on the actual effects of the drug but rather the perceived harm.

For example, tobacco and alcohol are legally available in the United States, but marijuana is not. Compared with other illegal substances, marijuana use is not addictive, and its negative health impacts are more comparable to legalized tobacco than to other illegal drugs. Moreover, marijuana has been found to have various positive effects especially for medicinal use, such as treating loss of appetite associated with cancer therapies, and as an effective painkiller without the severe side effects of prescription drugs.

Although tobacco and alcohol kill many times more people than all illegal drugs combined, they are nonetheless legally sold. Not all deviance is necessarily negative. For example, one can be a deviant but for a noble cause, such as those who engaged in civil disobedience to promote racial equality in the s.

Emile Durkheim was one of the first social scientists to recognize that deviance could also have functional benefits for society at large. First, identifying deviance sets the moral boundaries between right and wrong. Second, by defining deviance we also define acceptable norms and values.

For example, art is often shocking in that it challenges our way of thinking about various issues. Historically, people viewed deviance as a result of demonic possession, biological defects, and psychological problems. Seventeenth-century Salem, Massachusetts, residents saw lesbians and assertive women as deviants, attributing their behavior to witchcraft or demonic position, and so burned them to death.

In late 19th-century Italy, Cesare Lombroso, a physician, hypothesized that deviance had biological origins. As such, he believed that deviants could be identified by common physical characteristics, such as low foreheads. Lombroso reached these conclusions by examining the body types of prison populations without realizing that such traits were common in the general population. By the midth century, William Sheldon believed criminality could be predicted by body structure.

In contrast, psychologists identify internal psychological problems as the cause of deviance, but in the second half of the 20th century, sociological explanations of deviant behavior became more widely accepted. The positivist perspective, generally associated with the natural sciences and law enforcement, defines deviance as intrinsically real and makes three assumptions about it. Second is objectivism, the reality that deviance can be objectively studied and quantified, such as with statistical police reports.

This positivist theory exemplifies the sociological perspective called structural-functionalism. Merton had argued that every society encourages its citizens to pursue certain legitimate goals, such as wealth, with corresponding legitimate means, such as obtaining an education and a career. However, some people may experience a disconnect between the legitimate means and goals and thus experience strain, prompting five modes of adaptation responses.

First is conformity, when the goals and means are accepted e. Third is ritualism, by which a person accepts the means but cares little about the goal e. Fourth is retreatism, where the individual rejects all legitimate means and goals, e. Fifth is rebellion, when a person rejects both means and goals and replaces them with his or her own alternative set e.

Differential association is an interactionist sociological perspective which treats deviance as a socially learned behavior through interaction with deviants. Edwin Sutherland argued that individuals associating more with people who have deviant ideas than with conformists are more likely to become deviant themselves.

This is more likely to occur within small primary groups. Associating with deviants is only a first step, however. A person must also identify with the deviants and act accordingly before becoming one of them. Control theory argues that conformity results from social controls placed on the individual by society.

Travis Hirschi argued that everyone has an innate tendency to deviate from social norms.

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- Social Deviance Social deviance is a term that refers to forms of behavior and qualities of persons that others in society devalue and discredit. So what exactly is deviance. In .

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Students who study deviance should not make an assumption if the person is actually a criminal or broken rule because the process of labeling may not be infallible. According to the conflict perspective, deviance is a social creation and the power structure in any society defines what to be consider normal and what is not. Essay unit 3 Robert Decker The term "deviance" usually refers to some behavior that is inconsistent with standards of acceptable conduct prevailing in a given social group. The term has also been used to designate personal conditions, ideas, or statuses that are stigmatized or disreputable.

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Deviance Essay Generally speaking, deviance is behavior that a group or society considers inappropriate. Approaches to deviance . Deviance This Essay Deviance and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor: review • November 2, • Essay • 3, Words (14 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).