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The Effects of Various Exercises on the Cardiovascular System

Short Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise

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1. Introduction
Long Term Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise
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Blood flow to the skin also increases. The blood vessels serving the skin dilate to allow more blood to the surface of the body. This helps to cool the body down during exercise. Your blood pH—the level of acidity in your blood— becomes more acidic.

Your body uses by-products of carbon dioxide to buffer the hydrogen ions in your bloodstream. Hydrogen ions are electrically charged particles in your body.

The greater the number of hydrogen ions, the higher the acidity. Because you breathe faster during cardiovascular exercise, you expel carbon dioxide faster than you would normally. This gives the hydrogen ions time to accumulate. Decrease in resting heart rate. Because the rigors of regular exercise require so much work from the cardiovascular system, sedentary periods become even easier for the heart by comparison. The heart eventually becomes more efficient, and no longer needs to beat as quickly to supply the body with blood while at rest.

Stroke volume increases at rest. Journal of Biological Chemistry. The effects of glucose on protein synthesis and thermosensitivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Exercise, heat shock proteins, and myocardial protection from I-R injury. Small heat shock proteins and protection against ischemic injury in cardiac myocytes. Myocardial heat shock protein 70 expression in young and old rats after identical exercise programs. Journals of Gerontology A. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology.

Overexpression of the stress protein Grp94 reduces cardiomyocyte necrosis due to calcium overload and simulated ischemia. Short-term exercise does not increase ER stress protein expression in cardiac muscle. Exercise by lifelong voluntary wheel running reduces subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in the heart.

Exercise induces a cardiac mitochondrial phenotype that resists apoptotic stimuli. Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidase mediates receptor-independent cardiomyocyte apoptosis by serotonin and postischemic myocardial injury.

Oxidative stress-dependent sphingosine kinase-1 inhibition mediates monoamine oxidase A-associated cardiac cell apoptosis. Exercise training induces a cardioprotective phenotype and alterations in cardiac subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial proteins.

The first minutes of reperfusion: Calcium, mitochondria and reperfusion injury: Ischaemic preconditioning delays ischaemia induced cellular electrical uncoupling in rabbit myocardium by activation of ATP sensitive potassium channels. Yao Z, Gross GJ. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels lowers threshold for ischemic preconditioning in dogs.

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Mitochondrial KATP channel opening is important during index ischemia and following myocardial reperfusion in ischemic preconditioned rat hearts.

Exercise induces early and late myocardial preconditioning in dogs. Cardioprotection afforded by chronic exercise is mediated by the sarcolemmal, and not the mitochondrial, isoform of the KATP channel in the rat. Mitochondrial KATP channel inhibition blunts arrhythmia protection in ischemic exercised hearts. Annual Review of Physiology. The late phase of preconditioning. Exercise training reduces myocardial lipid peroxidation following short-term ischemia-reperfusion. Prognostic value of endothelial function.

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Prognostic value of coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Predictive value of noninvasively determined endothelial dysfunction for long-term cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral vascular disease.

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Dysfunctional regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS expression in response to exercise in mice lacking one eNOS gene.

Regular physical activity improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease by increasing phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease.

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Exercise training regulates SOD-1 and oxidative stress in porcine aortic endothelium. Involvement of endothelin-1 in habitual exercise-induced increase in arterial compliance. Exercise, vascular wall and cardiovascular diseases: Endurance training reduces circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and myeloperoxidase levels in persons at risk of coronary events.

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The short and long forms of type XVIII collagen show clear tissue specificities in their expression and location in basement membrane zones in humans.

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Therapeutic angiogenesis for heart failure. Effect of human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor on progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances cardiac allograft arteriosclerosis. Exercise adaptation attenuates VEGF gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

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Exercise and coronary vascular remodelling in the healthy heart. Coronary artery size and dilating capacity in ultradistance runners. Wyatt HL, Mitchell J. Influences of physical conditioning and deconditioning on coronary vasculature of dogs. Effects of moderate exercise training on thallium uptake and contractile response to low-dose dobutamine of dysfunctional myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Investigation of the physiological basis for increased exercise threshold for angina pectoris after physical conditioning. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss.

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Calcium and reactive oxygen species increase in endothelial cells in response to releasers of endothelium-derived contracting factor. British Journal of Pharmacology. Kasapis C, Thompson PD. The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: Physical activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

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The multiple risk factor intervention trial. Oguma Y, Shinoda-Tagawa T. Physical activity decreases cardiovascular disease risk in women: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Improved left ventricular diastolic function with exercise training in hypertension: Rehabilitation Research and Practice.

The American College of Sports Medicine encourages regular aerobic exercise as a method of controlling and reducing high blood pressure due to its effects on lowering your blood pressure. Overview Exercise has multiple short-term and long-term effects on your cardiovascular system. Heart Short-term aerobic exercise such as running for 30 minutes will not increase the size of your heart muscle, nor will it thicken the walls of your heart. Blood Vessels When you take one aerobic class, the blood vessels going to your working skeletal muscles increase in size, or dilate so more blood can flow to these muscles.

Natural Ways to Increase Blood Circulation. Initial Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Exercise. The Effect of Diet on the Circulatory System.

The Effects of Exercises on the Circulatory System. The 4 Parts of the Cardiovascular System. The Effects of Pregnancy on the Cardiovascular System. Chemoreceptors in the Cardiovascular System. Foods That Stimulate the Vascular System.


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Exercise has multiple short-term and long-term effects on your cardiovascular system. Your cardiovascular system is also called the circulatory system. It is made up of your heart, arteries, your veins and capillaries.

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Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System A fairly well conditioned athlete can see long term cardiovascular effects from exercising in as little as two weeks. People who are just beginning to exercise will see effects in up to four weeks.

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Short term/immediate effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Test your knowledge Question Benefits of short term effects of exercise Increased oxygen delivery to the working muscles. Increased removal of carbon dioxide Increased blood flow. During exercise, the cardiovascular system is called upon to meet the increased needs of the body in many ways. The cardiovascular system rushes oxygen to hardworking muscles, returns used blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated, and delivers fuel to the active tissues of the body.

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Short-term effects on cardiovascular system would be increased: Heart rate will continue to rise in direct proportion to the intensity of exercise until maximum heart rate is achieved. Stroke volume amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle by each beat increases, because of intensive exercise. The short and long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Ally Laconi Updated April 17, During exercise the cardiovascular system is called upon to meet the increased needs of .