The Bill of Rights guaranteed the people to free elections to Parliament, the right to a fair trial, and the elimination of cruel and unusual punishments. They thought that God had created an orderly universe and that the laws of the universe could be found through human reason.
The Thirteen Colonies were nowhere near Great Britain and could do anything that they wanted. The Colonies were starting to think of revolting. After the battle between French and the English, Britain was drained of money and resources. King George started to tax the Colonies to gain more money for England.
Several acts formed tensions between the Colonies and England. The colonists decided to hold the first Continental Congress, which formed a document that sent to King George which demanded their rights restored. King George did not really like their offer, and decided to respond with force. In April , two battles between the British and colonial soldiers took place in Massachusetts at Lexington and Concord, which started the revolutionary war.
Not all of the members favored independence from England, but the majority decided that something needed to be done about them. Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson were two huge contributions to the cause.
Thomas Jefferson was the man who wrote the Declaration of Independence. After the Revolutionary war, the Colonies started to turn into states. Each state was creating their own constitutions. The first state to complete their constitution was New Hampshire. Constitutions had a bicameral Two house Legislature, a Governor to enforce laws, and Judges to interpret the laws.
The first national government was the Articles of the Confederation. The Articles was a weak government were all of the power was in the states.
The group formed because farmers were starting to lose their land because they could not pay off their debt. The rebellion failed at destroying the government but it showed people that their government was too weak and that they needed change. In response to all of the unrest about a change in government, the people held the Constitutional Convention.
The constitutional convention was only created to revise the Articles, but instead we came up with a different government. Two plans were talked about during the convention, the Virginia Plan, which favored large states, and the New Jersey plan, which favored smaller states.
Everyone finally got into an agreement except for the Southern States. After everyone was in agreement, the members of the Constitutional Convention signed the United States Constitution and added in the Bill of Rights, which are now the first 10 out of 27 amendments.
Bibliography Civics Textbook http: Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? Alabama , the Supreme Court made a ruling that the conviction of an Alabama couple for interracial sex, confirmed on the plea by the Alabama Supreme Court, did not disrupt the Fourteenth Amendment.
Interracial marital sex was considered a felony, whereas adulterous sex "infidelity or fornication" was just a misdemeanor. On plea, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that the illegalization of interracial sex was not a defilement of the equal protection clause since whites and non-whites were penalized in equivalent amount for the wrongdoing of involving in interracial sex. The court did not see the need to sustain the constitutionality of the prohibition on interracial marriage that was likewise part of Alabama's anti-miscegenation law.
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers.
While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.
Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…… [Read More].
Civil -- Civil cases involve disputes between two parties. In these cases the person or entity who files the suit the plaintiff claims that the other person or entity the defendant has failed to fulfill a legal obligation to the plaintiff. The plaintiff may request the court to require the defendant to either fulfill the obligation or make monetary restitution. Federal Court System a. Jurisdiction -- The jurisdiction of federal courts is limited to what is provided in the Constitution.
Typically, these are cases involving: Cases in which the United States is a party ii. Cases involving violation of the U. Constitution or Federal Laws iii. Bankruptcy, copyright, patent, and maritime law cases. Organization of Federal Court System -- There are three basic levels of the federal court system. These are…… [Read More]. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U. Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.
There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.
Overview In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U. Wetlands Regulation in USA. Regulation of etlands in the United States Regulation of etlands in the United States Defining etlands and their Value A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil.
A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" p.
He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation Lewis 3. The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked Lewis 3.
The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…… [Read More]. Formation of the United States Government. The original Constitution was hard enough to pull off but the Articles of Confederation were also a challenge and were in response to the economic challenges of that day.
Different issues and weaknesses that came up were the Western problem, the slave vs. The debates that raged with the Federalists and the anti-Federalists will be covered as well as how the Bill of ights debate developed. Finally, the relative success of the Bill of ights will be summarized. While no single constitutional document is going to placate all sources and address all problems that could come to pass, the compromises and debates that raged about these two major parts of…… [Read More].
U S Government the United States. This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors.
The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.
There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…… [Read More].
These liberties are those on which this country was formed and have been upheld for many years as absolute certainties. The Patriot Act has put a lot of doubt on whether these liberties are still protected guarantees.
With this act giving the Government the power to use wiretaps to spy on people, search warrants to look for things that they don't even have to tell you about and the ability to look at ones private computer records it makes you wonder what this country is coming to. How is it that we the people have allowed it to come to this?
What has happened to the guts on which this country was built? Back then this type of act would never have been passed and put into practice. Although it can be argued that this is because times are so much different now than they were back in the day,…… [Read More]. American Revolution Slavery in the United Stated. American Revolution Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in In twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.
This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained.
Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland.
The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…… [Read More]. Constitution of the United States Was a. Constitution of the United States was a highly important and significant document that was adopted on September 17, , and ratified by conventions. Eleven states participated in the ratification, and the Constitution officially went into effect on March 4, The Constitution of the United States is important for many reasons, including keeping order and law and guaranteeing basic freedoms for the American people.
Without the Constitution, it would be much easier for lawmakers to make changes that might not have value to the people of the country and that could cause them harm by taking away some or all of the rights that they have come to expect.
Constitution is a document that can be changed and adjusted but that does include guarantees for specific rights that will not be lost even if those changes and adjustments are made. Constitution was written by Governor…… [Read More]. United States of America Has a Long. United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence.
Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism Lipsman, Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler.
It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people Lipsman, On the other hand, Conservatism deems…… [Read More].
The objective of this study is to answer how prepared the United States is to respond to a WMD attack within its borders and to answer whether there is enough capability to effectively respond to such an attack. This study will further answer as to whether the response plan and command control structure clearly understandable and whether everyone has a role or if there are gaps or redundancies. Finally, this study will answer as to how intelligence supports this response with restrictions imposed upon intelligence operations within our borders.
The challenges to an effective response to a WMD attack within U. Some of the challenges are technology related while others relate to communication among agencies and operation teams. In addition, there is presently funding issues relating to effective management of homeland security initiatives making…… [Read More].
United States of America Initially Adopted an. In the thirteen British colonies in North America rose up against their parent country Great Britain.
The war was known as the American evolution and was seen by the British Crown as an affront to its rule, as a result it increased its strangle hold upon the colonists Anonymous, From this attempt to rule by an iron hand forced the colonists to officially declare war upon the British and form a new government with their own Constitution.
The war ended in and America was recognized as an independent nation by the British Government in Anonymous, However, in , before the end of the war America had already signed…… [Read More].
United States singled a shining democratic governance;, U. Scholar One of the critiques of democracy discussed within the articles for this assignment is greatly associated with the role that private property and wealth plays in democratic societies.
Specifically, within Santas' "Plato's criticism of democracies in The epublic," the author alludes to the fact that the influence of these two external aspects of government -- the private property and wealth of the individual chosen to govern in a democracy -- has the innate potential to corrupt and to subject the needs of the masses who are governed to those of the individuals who are governing.
There is a great possibility that the author is correct regarding this point of criticism. One of the points of validity for this notion is the fact that it is found in literature and is one of the chief points of disparagement…… [Read More].
United States Still the World's. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model" is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven Hallin, et al.
The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics Hallin United States President George Washington. Jefferson asked Lewis to fully explain to the Indians that the white explorers were interested in trade, not in seizing their lands Ambrose This showed that Jefferson used a steady hand and smart policies regarding the estern frontier and that he understood diplomacy with the Native Americans, whom he respected very much.
The fact is, most Americans probably believe that the only issue that precipitated the Civil ar was slavery, and though slavery was at the center of the north-south feud, it was not alone as a spotlighted issue.
The bottom line issue that tore the country apart was state's rights; in other words, did states have a right to go against the will of the national government? Could a Southern state continue to keep slaves in bondage because their cotton crops hence, their economic power to survive depended on slave labor? The answer of course…… [Read More]. United States Government Should Grant. The Dream Act would remove the uncertainty…… [Read More]. United States Military's Efforts to.
Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.
Anti-female bias in the military The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire for a larger, stronger military, in , the Women's Armed Services Integration Act was enacted.
This act made it possible for women to become permanent members in the military. Once again, as with African-American men, that act alone was not enough to ensure integration thus leading to a multitude of policies designed to accomplish that end. Almost immediately following this act, in , it was changed to eliminate women with dependent children.
This was not changed until the 's. United States Operates as an Indirect or. United States operates as an indirect or representative democracy meaning that a select group is elected by the whole to serve as representatives while attending to public matters. This is in contrast to a direct democracy which holds that all eligible members of a society can personally direct public affairs. This distinction is often overlooked by most Americans who believe that the term democracy has no qualifications.
In order to fully grasp American government, it is essential to understand the Framers of the Constitution referred to it as republic in form. Their intention was to have representatives direct government operations. In other words, voters select representatives who in turn carry out government business. The reasons for this procedure are manifold. Most notably, the Framers foresaw the electorate making poor decisions based on transitory emotions thereby leading the country in an unwise direction.
Given such predispositions, the Framers felt that minority…… [Read More]. United States Is a Nation of Laws. United tates is a nation of laws. We use laws to determine what is and is not criminal behavior. We then use the application of judicial principles to try people accused of crimes, and we use laws to determine what the punishment will be for those who are found guilty of a crime.
Our judicial system has multiple layers because individual judges can make mistakes. When a convicted criminal feels a mistake has been made, he or she can appeal their conviction to the appellate courts. Appellate court rulings affect every courtroom under their jurisdiction, and those rulings can be used in other appeals in other jurisdictions, so appellate rulings can have a profound effect on our prison system.
One ruling by an appellate court has had a profound and widespread effect on prisoners, and that is the ruling that required prisons to make law library facilities available to prisoners. United States in Iraq Stay or Go. Temperatures and tempers are soaring in Iraq, and every day the news flashes tell the stories of one, two, three, or more American soldiers who died in combat.
On a high note, the United States public rallied behind the President and imagined throngs of joyous happy smiling Iraqi men, women, and children.
Granted, Saddam was a dictator. He and his minions grew fat off his nation's main natural resource: Hussein and his regime also systematically persecuted whole ethnic…… [Read More]. United States There Is No. At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment.
Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility.
Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age. Reason 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21 At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…… [Read More].
US Court and Supreme. And Supreme Court Contrast the U. Circuit Courts with the U. Supreme Court in terms of their authority to strike down an act of congress or of the states? The Circuit Courts on the other hand are the intermediate courts which make rulings before an issue reaches the Supreme Court. There are nine circuits which divide the country. Each state belongs to one of those nine circuits. A circuit court may rule a law unconstitutional-based either on the constitution of the state or based on the national constitution.
Both bodies have the ability to review any legislation created to check its lawfulness. However, a decision made by…… [Read More]. Patriot Act The U. Patriot Act was passed because of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, The Patriot Act was passed to make it easier for us to protect ourselves from future terrorist acts. The Act has been controversial because although most people recognize the need to effectively prevent future attacks, some people feel the law has gone too far and infringed on civil liberties.
Other critics contend that the law doesn't give government enough power Doyle, The Patriot Act makes various actions by the government when trying to identify who might be a terrorist easier to execute.
It extends wiretapping to email, provides for nationwide permission to use wiretapping and related investigatory techniques rather than having to get those permissions on a…… [Read More].
Foreign Policy American foreign policy occupies a unique place in the world. American foreign policy regarding interacting with other nations is a non-homogeneous mixture of politics, economics, and the unique American culture which believes that both the success of political and economic agenda's cannot be separated from the ways which a country treats it's people.
To be specific, American has a difficult time forming positive relationships with nations that oppress, imprison, or otherwise trample their people's basic human rights to life, liberty and the individual pursuit of happiness. As he stated during his administration, President Jimmy Carter described the connection between human rights and American foreign policy this way. Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood. Patriot Act After the attacks on September 11, , the government passed legislation designed to protect the country.
Included amongst these was the Patriot Act which has become the center of debate by parties who are either in favor of or against the legislation. There are many provisions to this act and the ones that are most debated include: From out of the ruins of the World Trade Center, and over the unmarked graves of nearly three thousand innocent people, a new world took shape.
It was a world in which the citizens of the United Sates found themselves suddenly vulnerable to the murderous plots of a handful of fanatics. A trip to the mall, a drive over a bridge, a meeting at the office: Americans were discovering for the first time what so many around the globe had known for years, that the scenes of daily life could become the settings of terror.
Were the people of the United States to spend their lives looking over their shoulders? Was the free and open society so cherished by each and…… [Read More]. United States Highly Prizes Its. Clearly, Bakke was discriminated against and rejected on the grounds of no more than his race. The matter was decided on 29 June This case holds particular interest for education, as it sheds light upon an interesting issue arising from the equality drive.
Clearly the University of California was driven to diversify its campus by offering opportunities to minority students. However, the fact that they did so in favor of minority students with lower qualifications and abilities than the white male, Bakke, was indeed a form of discrimination based upon race.
It brought to light the fact that true equality in education can only be achieved when giving a truly equal and fair opportunity for everyone, regardless of race, to enter the program. Similar cases were heard by the Supreme Court concerning the University of Michigan. Bollinger, the issue is the Law School's policy of commitment…… [Read More]. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain.
The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened particularly in the years leading up to the revolution in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…… [Read More].
Unfortunately, the postwar relationship between the United States and Japan has mirrored the relationship of the United States with the vast majority of countries that it has dealt with in the ensuing decades that followed orld ar II. Veiled, shadowy secrets, duplicity, and outright deception have characterized the vast majority of these relationships; numerous exchanges between the United States and Japan have indicated that the relationship of these countries was no exception to this proclivity.
And Japan during the postwar epoch, however, is the degree of complicity that Japan was virtually forced to take on in the relatively brief amount of time that existed since it engaged the U. A prime example of Japanese compliance that seems particularly unsettling, of course, is in regards to the assistance it provided America with…… [Read More]. American Presidents the United States. His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party.
He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from to He was married to Hannah, and he died in His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician. He is most remembered for the Panic of , and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler.
He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from to He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe. Wickard v Filburn - Filburn was a small farmer in Ohio. He was given a wheat acreage allotment of The rule laid down by Justice Jackson is that even if an activity is local and not regarded as commerce, "it may still, whatever its nature, be reached by Congress if it exerts a substantial economic effect on interstate commerce, and this irrespective of whether such effect is what might at some earlier time have been defined as 'direct' or 'indirect" Oyez Project, U.
This decision allowed the Federal system to have regulatory ability over home grown product, because it affected more than just the single family farm. SAMTA argued that it was providing a "traditional" governmental function, which exempted it from federal controls according to the doctrine of federalism established in National League of Cities v. The Question in the case: In a 5-to-4 decision, the Court held that the guiding principles of federalism established in National League of Cities v.
The Court found that rules based on the subjective determination of "integral" or "traditional" governmental functions provided little or no guidance in determining the boundaries of federal and state power.
The Court argued that the structure of the federal system itself, rather than any "discrete limitations" on federal authority, protected state sovereignty Oyez Project, This decision changed the way the Court utilized the 10th Amendment regarding state immunity towards certain activities involving commerce. Works Cited Chemerinsky, Erwin. Works Cited Amar, Akhil Reed. The Bill of Rights: New Haven and London: Yale University Press, Its Origin and Meaning.
James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights. New York and London: Oxford University Press, Origins of the Bill of Rights. Works Cited Barnett, Randy E. The Original Meaning of the Commerce Clause. University of Chicago Law Review. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved April 29, , from http: Interpretation and Use of the Commerce Clause.
The spirit of American constitutionalism: John Dickinson's Fabius Letters. James Madison and the Bill of Rights: The Supreme Court Law Review Origins of the unwritten constitution: Stanford Law Review 30 5: Federal Government, located online, found at http: Works Cited Barrett, T. Senate rejects expanded gun background checks. The Struggle for Democracy. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton University Press, Dahl, Shapiro and Cheibub. Implementing International Humanitarian Law: Retrieved October 29, , from Questia database: Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?
Navigating Law and Politics: Confederate States of America. Retrieved March 6, from http: Primary Documents in American History: S Department of State, Retrieved March 6, from https: How Democratic is the American Constitution?
Critics of the Constitution, University of North Carolina Press, , Works Cited Beard, Charles A. The American Political Tradition.
U.S Constitution essays In , a few years after America broke away from England, the constitution we use today was made. Before that, starting in , the states operated under a government they called the "Articles of Confederation." This government basically said that each state shou.
- In this essay I will be writing about the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America and considering whether they achieved the purpose of making life better for African Americans.
Essay on The Constitution of the United States - The Constitution of the United States The Preamble states the broad purposes the Constitution is intended to serve - to establish a government that provides for greater cooperation among the States, ensures justice and peace, provides for defense against foreign enemies, promotes the general well-being of the people, and secures liberty now and in the . In , Americans celebrated the bicentennial, or th anniversary, of the signing of the Constitution of the United States. This document, which has served as "the Supreme Law of the Land" for more than two centuries, is the world's oldest written constitution still in use.
Essay on US Constitution Words | 4 Pages. Transformed beyond recognition from the vision of the Founding Fathers’. Discuss this view of the modern US constitution. On March 4th the constitution of the United States of America came into effect. The US Constitution Essays Words 7 Pages The plan to divide the government into three branches was proposed by James Madison, at the Constitutional Convention of