Sweat Zora Neale Hurston. The Castle of Otranto Horace Walpole. The Swimmer John Cheever. The Catcher in the Rye J.
Measure for Measure William Shakespeare. Taming of the Shrew William Shakespeare. The Metamorphosis Franz Kafka. Titus Andronicus William Shakespeare. The Color Purple Alice Walker. Midnight's Children Salman Rushdie. Comedy of Errors William Shakespeare. Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe. Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoevsky. Thus Spoke Zarathustra Friedrich Nietzche. The Crucible Arthur Miller. Moby Dick Herman Melville. Tortilla Flat John Steinbeck. Daisy Miller Henry James.
My Name is Red Orhan Pamuk. The Tragedy of Coriolanus William Shakespeare. Desiree's Baby Kate Chopin. Narrative of the Life Frederick Douglass. Travels with Charley John Steinbeck. Death of a Salesman Arthur Miller. Native Son Richard Wright. To Kill a Mocking bird Harper Lee. Doctor Faustus Christopher Marlowe.
The Nun Denis Diderot. The Dubliners James Joyce. Walden Henry David Thoreau. Everyday Use Alice Walker. Fahrenheit Ray Bradbury. Of Mice and Men John Steinbeck. Winesburg Ohio Sherwood Anderson. Flowers for Algernon Daniel Keyes. Companies need to go beyond competing. To seize new profit and growth opportunities they also need to create blue oceans. The authors argue that competition based strategies assume that an industry's structural conditions are given and that firms are forced to compete within them, an assumption based on what academics call the structuralist view, or environmental determinism.
To sustain themselves in the marketplace, practitioners of red ocean strategy focus on building advantages over the competition, usually by assessing what competitors do and striving to do it better. Hence, competition, the supply side of the equation, becomes the defining variable of strategy. Here, cost and value are seen as trade-offs and a firm chooses a distinctive cost or differentiation position. Because the total profit level of the industry is also determined by structural factors, firms principally seek to capture and redistribute wealth instead of creating wealth.
They focus on dividing up the red ocean, where growth is increasingly limited. Blue ocean strategy, on the other hand, is based on the view that market boundaries and industry structure are not given and can be reconstructed by the actions and beliefs of industry players.
This is what the authors call the reconstructionist view. To them, extra demand is out there, largely untapped. The crux of the problem is how to create it. This, in turn, requires a shift of attention from supply to demand, from a focus on competing to a focus on value innovation — that is, the creation of innovative value to unlock new demand. This is achieved via the simultaneous pursuit of differentiation and low-cost. Competition in the old game is therefore rendered irrelevant. By expanding the demand side of the economy, new wealth is created.
Such a strategy therefore allows firms to largely play a non—zero-sum game, with high payoff possibilities. Some examples of companies that may have created new market spaces in the opinion of Kim and Mauborgne include: Reports of businesses using blue ocean strategy concepts include: Since Blue Ocean Strategy was published in it has been translated into 43 languages and has sold over 3.
While Kim and Mauborgne propose approaches to finding uncontested market space, at the present there are few success stories of companies that have actively applied their theories. One success story that does exist is Nintendo , who first applied the blue ocean strategy to create the Nintendo DS handheld game system which was the first portable gaming system to offer dual-screen gaming and a touch screen in In , Nintendo released the Wii , which used unique motion controls.
The 3DS is Nintendo's third endeavour for its blue ocean strategy. Its first two attempts, the Nintendo DS and Wii, were wildly successful, becoming some of the biggest selling platforms in history. Nintendo revealed their Blue Ocean Strategy during an E3 press conference during the hype build-up of the Wii. However, with just one case study, this hole in their data persists despite the publication of value innovation concepts dating back to Hence, a critical question is whether this book and its related ideas are descriptive rather than prescriptive.
The research process followed by the authors has been criticized on several grounds. Additionally, blue ocean strategy cannot be identified as true causation for success.
They defined this success as a significant drop in crime in the City of New York after Bratton took office in Many social scientists would disagree that it was Bratton's policies that led to crime reduction: Brand and communication are taken for granted and do not represent a key for success. Kim and Maubourgne take the marketing of a value innovation as a given, assuming the marketing success will come as a matter of course.
It is argued that rather than a theory, blue ocean strategy is an extremely successful attempt to brand a set of already existing concepts and frameworks with a highly "sticky" idea.
This metaphor can be powerful enough to stimulate people to action. However, the concepts behind the Blue Ocean Strategy such as the competing factors, the consumer cycle, non-customers, etc. Many of these tools are also used by Six Sigma practitioners and proposed by other management theorists. Prahalad , which was published in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. If you've done the first steps well this part shouldn't be too bad.
In fact it might even be enjoyable! The major myth in writing a dissertation is that you start writing at Chapter One and then finish your writing at Chapter Five. This is seldom the case. The most productive approach in writing the dissertation is to begin writing those parts of the dissertation that you are most comfortable with. Then move about in your writing by completing various sections as you think of them. At some point you will be able to spread out in front of you all of the sections that you have written.
You will be able to sequence them in the best order and then see what is missing and should be added to the dissertation. This way seems to make sense and builds on those aspects of your study that are of most interest to you at any particular time.
Go with what interests you, start your writing there, and then keep building! Look at the first section of your paper. When you are ready go ahead and write it. If you are not ready, move section-by-section through your paper until you find a section where you have some input to make. Make your input and continue moving through the entire paper - from A to Z - writing and adding to those sections for which you have some input.
Each time you work on your paper follow the same A to Z process. This will help you visualize the end product of your efforts from very early in your writing and each time you work on your paper you will be building the entire paper - from A to Z.
If you prepared a comprehensive proposal you will now be rewarded! Pull out the proposal and begin by checking your proposed research methodology. Change the tense from future tense to past tense and then make any additions or changes so that the methodology section truly reflects what you did.
You have now been able to change sections from the proposal to sections for the dissertation. Move on to the Statement of the Problem and the Literature Review in the same manner.
I must assume you're using some form of word processing on a computer to write your dissertation. If your study has specific names of people, institutions and places that must be changed to provide anonymity don't do it too soon. Go ahead and write your dissertation using the real names.
Then at the end of the writing stage you can easily have the computer make all of the appropriate name substitutions. If you make these substitutions too early it can really confuse your writing. As you get involved in the actual writing of your dissertation you will find that conservation of paper will begin to fade away as a concern. Just as soon as you print a draft of a chapter there will appear a variety of needed changes and before you know it another draft will be printed.
And, it seems almost impossible to throw away any of the drafts! After awhile it will become extremely difficult to remember which draft of your chapter you may be looking at. Print each draft of your dissertation on a different color paper.
With the different colors of paper it will be easy to see which is the latest draft and you can quickly see which draft a committee member might be reading. The one area where I would caution you about using a word processor is in the initial creation of elaborate graphs or tables.
I've seen too many students spend too many hours in trying to use their word processor to create an elaborate graph that could have been done by hand in 15 minutes.
So, the simple rule is to use hand drawing for elaborate tables and graphs for the early draft of your dissertation. Once you and your advisor agree upon how the data should be graphically represented it is time to prepare "perfect" looking graphs and tables. Dissertation-style writing is not designed to be entertaining. Dissertation writing should be clear and unambiguous. To do this well you should prepare a list of key words that are important to your research and then your writing should use this set of key words throughout.
There is nothing so frustrating to a reader as a manuscript that keeps using alternate words to mean the same thing. If you've decided that a key phrase for your research is "educational workshop", then do not try substituting other phrases like "in-service program", "learning workshop", "educational institute", or "educational program.
Review two or three well organized and presented dissertations. Examine their use of headings, overall style, typeface and organization.
Use them as a model for the preparation of your own dissertation. In this way you will have an idea at the beginning of your writing what your finished dissertation will look like. A most helpful perspective! A simple rule - if you are presenting information in the form of a table or graph make sure you introduce the table or graph in your text. If there is nothing to discuss then you may want to question even inserting it.
Another simple rule - if you have a whole series of very similar tables try to use similar words in describing each. Don't try and be creative and entertaining with your writing.
If each introduction and discussion of the similar tables uses very similar wording then the reader can easily spot the differences in each table. We are all familiar with how helpful the Table of Contents is to the reader. What we sometimes don't realize is that it is also invaluable to the writer. Use the Table of Contents to help you improve your manuscript.
Use it to see if you've left something out, if you are presenting your sections in the most logical order, or if you need to make your wording a bit more clear. Then sit back and see if the Table of Contents is clear and will make good sense to the reader. You will be amazed at how easy it will be to see areas that may need some more attention. Don't wait until the end to do your Table of Contents.
Do it early enough so you can benefit from the information it will provide to you. Don't waste my time. This is a key section of the dissertation and is sometimes best done after you've had a few days to step away from your research and allow yourself to put your research into perspective. If you do this you will no doubt be able to draw a variety of insights that help link your research to other areas.
In other words, what are the key ideas that we can draw from your study to apply to my areas of concern. Potentially the silliest part of the dissertation is the Suggestions for Further Research section.
This section is usually written at the very end of your writing project and little energy is left to make it very meaningful. The biggest problem with this section is that the suggestions are often ones that could have been made prior to you conducting your research.
Read and reread this section until you are sure that you have made suggestions that emanate from your experiences in conducting the research and the findings that you have evolved. Make sure that your suggestions for further research serve to link your project with other projects in the future and provide a further opportunity for the reader to better understand what you have done. Now it's time to write the last chapter. But what chapter is the last one? My perception is that the last chapter should be the first chapter.
I don't really mean this in the literal sense. Certainly you wrote Chapter One at the beginning of this whole process. Now, at the end, it's time to "rewrite" Chapter One. After you've had a chance to write your dissertation all the way to the end, the last thing you should do is turn back to Chapter One. Reread Chapter One carefully with the insight you now have from having completed Chapter Five. Does Chapter One clearly help the reader move in the direction of Chapter Five?
Are important concepts that will be necessary for understanding Chapter Five presented in Chapter One? What a terrible name - a dissertation defense. It seems to suggest some sort of war that you're trying to win. And, of course, with four or five of them and only one of you it sounds like they may have won the war before the first battle is held.
I wish they had called it a dissertation seminar or professional symposium. I think the name would have brought forward a much better picture of what should be expected at this meeting. Regardless of what the meeting is called, try to remember that the purpose of the meeting is for you to show everyone how well you have done in the conducting of your research study and the preparation of your dissertation.
In addition there should be a seminar atmosphere where the exchange of ideas is valued. You are clearly the most knowledgeable person at this meeting when it comes to your subject.
And, the members of your committee are there to hear from you and to help you better understand the very research that you have invested so much of yourself in for the past weeks.
Their purpose is to help you finish your degree requirements. Of course other agenda often creep in. If that happens, try to stay on course and redirect the meeting to your agenda. The most obvious suggestion is the one seldom followed. Try to attend one or more defenses prior to yours. Find out which other students are defending their research and sit in on their defense. In many departments this is expected of all graduate students.
If this is not the case for you , check with your adviser to see that you can get an invitation to attend some defenses. At the defense try and keep your focus on the interactions that occur. Does the student seem relaxed? What strategies does the student use to keep relaxed? How does the student interact with the faculty? Does the student seem to be able to answer questions well? What would make the situation appear better? What things should you avoid?
You can learn a lot from sitting in on such a meeting. Find opportunities to discuss your research with your friends and colleagues. Listen carefully to their questions. See if you are able to present your research in a clear and coherent manner. Are there aspects of your research that are particularly confusing and need further explanation?
Are there things that you forgot to say? Could you change the order of the information presented and have it become more understandable? I hope you don't try circulating chapters of your dissertation to your committee members as you are writing them. I find this practice to be most annoying and one that creates considerable problems for the student. You must work closely with your dissertation director. Develop a strategy with the dissertation director regarding how and when your writing should be shared.
Only after your dissertation director approves of what you have done should you attempt to share it with the rest of the committee. And by then it's time for the defense.
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This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can discover or refine one for your draft. How to Write a Thesis Statement. A thesis statement expresses the central argument or claim of your essay. Learn more in this pamphlet. HTML PDF VIDEO.
Thesis or Dissertation. S. Joseph Levine, Ph.D. Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan USA ([email protected])) Become a Fan. Introduction. This guide has been created to assist my graduate students in thinking through the many aspects of crafting, implementing and defending a thesis or dissertation. WELLESLEY, Mass. — The senior thesis of Hillary D. Rodham, Wellesley College class of , has been speculated about, spun, analyzed, debated, criticized and defended. But rarely has it been.